S. L. SADHU

Glossary


Amarnath Ji, Cave The famous cave about 80 miles from Srinagar where images of ice symbolic of Shiva wax and wane with the moon. Oppressed by the demons the gods prayed to Shiva who appeared before them here and gave them nectar.
Bakhsheesh Tips
Basmati A fine variety of rice.
Begar Forced Labour.
Bhand Itinerant actor of the traditional type.
Bishta Sound made to drive away a cat.
Bostan, Gulistan well-known poetical work in Persian of Saadi of Shiraz, for long favourite with the intellectual classes in Kashmir.
Chakaldar Official entrusted with the collection of land tax in the past.
Doongha A commodious boat used in the past as a convenient means of transport.
Durbar Audience held by a ruling chief.
Girdawar An inspector of land under whom patwaris work.
Gulistan See Bostan.
Gundam Norma Jao farosh One selling barley for wheat.
Hakim A physician.
Hakim-e-ala Head of a provincial administration.
Jagirdar One enjoying the revenue of an estate either conferred upon or inherited by him.
Jogi A master of the science of yoga; a sanyasi.
Kabab Roastmeat.
Kabargah A choice meat dish.
Kamraz The northern half of the valley of Kashmir.
Kangri The portable firepot used extensively in Kashmir consisting of an earthenware bowl set in a wickerwork case.
Kanji Fermented preparation from gruel rich in vitamins.
Kapas Cotton.
Kardar Official entrusted with the collection of land tax in the past.
Khatumband A style in ceilings made of small pieces of wood set in grooves in geometric patterns.
Khirwar A measure of weight about 166 lbs., literally an ass-load.
Khwaja Saheb Title prefixed to the name of a bourgeois Mohammadan.
Kotwal Head of the police station.
Kuvera In the Hindu pantheon the treasurer of the gods.
Ladhaki chat Brick-tea formerly imported from Ladakh or Tibet.
Maharaj ki jai Victory to the great ruler.
Mahakali The consort of Siva in the fierce form in which she killed a demon.
Mahseer An uncommon variety of fish.
Maktab A school of the traditional type.
Malmal Muslin turban made of muslin.
Manut Literally a measure of 3 pounds of weight.
Maraz The southern half of the valley of Kashmir.
Maria A measure of area, about 1/160 of an acre.
Mashir-i-mal Revenue minister, head of the revenue administration.
Mengan Sheep or goat-dung.
Munshi A clerk, a confidential clerk.
Mushkabudji A fine and choice variety of rice.
Nalamar A canal in Srinagar.
Nambardar Village headman.
Narela  A small handy smoking apparatus of the Indian pattern.
Naat Hymn in praise of the Prophet of Islam.
Nazar A gift or tribute offered to a ruler, etc. as a token of allegiance.
Pampur The famous plateau, eight miles from Srinagar, where the finest saffron is grown.
Pandit The title prefixed to the name of a Brahman of Kashmir, a learned man.
Pashmina Cloth made of the finest wool of Ladakhi and Tibetan goats.
Pathwari The accountant of land tax at the village level.
Panzuv Literally a measure of six pounds of weight.
Pheran Long, commodious apron worn by Kashmiri men and women, especially in winter.
Pilau A delicious dish of rice, butter, meat, etc. highly relished.
Purdah Veil.
Qualamdan A small but artistic pen-tray-cum-inkpot formerly very much in fashion.
Qawali A religious song sung in chorus.
Qazi Judge.
Resident British political officer in States in India ruled till 1947 by Indian princes.
Rakh A game-preserve.
Ravan The many-headed king of Lanka killed by Rama.
Rogan josh A dish of meat fried dark brown and highly spiced.
Sati Self-immolation by Hindu widow on the funeral pyre of her husband.
Sag Cooked green leaves.
Shabrang Dark in complexion, of the colour of night.
Shamzana  A large canopy over a gathering or assembly.
Shawl  A fine fabric of pashmina wool for which Kashmir is famous, used by the upper class Kashmiris.
Shah Hamdan A religious leader of Muslims who came to Kashmir from Hamdan in Central Asia in the fifteenth century. His name is held in great reverence in Kashmir.
Sheikh Headman, nobleman.
Shikar Hunting.
Shikara Light skiff used for quick transport over the waterways in Kashmir.
Shivaratri  A festival of the Hindus celebrating the wedding of Shiva and Parvati. It is of great importance in Kashmir.
Shradha Oblation to one's ancestors on his or her death anniversary.
Somavar Tea-kettle of Russian origin found in every Kashmiri home.
Tehsil A sub-division of a district.
Tehsildar A sub-divisional collector.
Thug A swindler.
Toh Paddy husk.
Toshakhana State reception department.
Tumboknari An earthenware pipe mounted with sheep skin on the wider head and used as a drum in Kashmir.
Wazir A minister or head of the State Administration.
Wazir-i-wazarat Deputy commissioner or collector of a district.
Zamindar A big land owner engaging tenants or cultivators.
Previous Index THE END