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VITASTA ANNUAL NUMBER: Volume XXXV (2001-2002)

The Temple Legacy of Kashmir - An Account from Burried History
S. N. Pandita, New Delhi

Kashmir abounds with remains of temples of antiquity characterised by a combination of massiveness and simplicity and of solidity and grandeur which symbolises power glorified with piety. They also display refinement and art. Their ponderous solidity of structure being relieved by the grace of colossal sculpture coupled with an inexhaustible variety of architectural details have called forth admiration of many that included attention of great Chinese travellers like Hieun Tsiang (631-633 AD) and Oukong (759 AD). There are few temple ruins in India comparable to those found in Kashmir. So rightly observed Dr. Ernst Neve, the famous medical missionary of Kashmir, "Ancient India has nothing more worthy of its early civilization than the grand ruins of Kashmir which are the pride of Kashmiris and admiration of travellers. The massive, the grotesque and elegant in architecture may be admirable in parts of India but nowhere is to be found counterpart of the classically graceful yet systematically massive edifices as in Kashmir temple ruins."

Ancient monuments of very great archaeological interest which disclose the existence of a lost civilization are, as stated above, numerous in Kashmir. The devotion of kings, the reserves of the kingdoms and skills of master artists in the past combined, to raise the magnificent and the beautiful temple edifices in Kashmir. They were built to endure for all times. Their solidity of construction and their gigantic size strike one with wonder that man could have built them. Many kings have come and gone and civilizations have bloomed and vanished since they were built. People go and pace around them and gaze on them with amazement and awe - amazement inspired by the stupendous might and skill of their builders and awe excited by the ruins of these edifices which look as if weeping over the departed glory of their founders.

But the disintegrating hand of time and earthquakes and the vandalistic propensities of certain bigoted rulers have laid many temples of Kashmir to waste. The climate of Kashmir too has been peculiarly destructive to them added by the frosted snow lying long over them. One must appreciate that founders of these temples were wise enough to use sculptured stones of very large dimensions as smaller ones should have under these conditions crumbled and vanished long ago.

The Kashmiris in bygone ages were called Shastra Shilpina or architects, an epithet applied to them on account of their well known skills in building. The people had a religious past having deep rooted connection and notions of religion based on ancient traditions and sacred mandates. Even if the present finds, ruined temples, the fact remains that their lofty arches and massive blocks of masonry were quarried and erected bit by bit by a people who expended their best on buildings which were to be set aside for nothing but the noble purpose of worship. But alas! repeated devastations were done and havoc was wrought to them by cruel implacable zealots and vandals from time to time. It's a pity that formerly these most important and precious relics of the past glory of Kashmir were allowed to remain in a lamentary neglected condition. Unprotected from the destructive and disintegrating influences of weather the ancient temple monuments in Kashmir gradually crumbled to ruins.

In 1875, Hofrath Georg Buhler and after him several European Sanskrit scholars came and delved in the Kashmir soil. However, all honour goes to the late Lord Curzon who actuated by his great love for antiquities established an Archaeological Department in India and then the Kashmir Darbar caught the hint and instituted an Archaeological Department of their own in Srinagar. Yet the first nucleus of knowledge about Kashmir temple monuments came from the works of European Savants like Cole, Cunningham, Fergusson and foremost amongst the later source of information on these, names of Stein, Buhler, Vogel and Konow stand out. In the course of researches, Stein succeeded in identifying a large number of interesting spots with rare account of history. Among these were the famous city of Parihasapurabuilt by Lalitaditya as his favourite residence and capital of Kashmir, Shardavanna (modern Harwan) where the great Buddhist teacher Nagarjuna is reported to have lived and the temples of Shiva Bhutesa and Siva Jeyshthesa situated near the hamlet of Vangath. He also spotted Kaptesvara - modern Kother with its two temples and Mamalaka the modern Mamal near Pahalgam with its little shrine of Mameswara Siva built by Jeyshthesa in 1126-1128 AD. Stein also established that a ruined temple was converted into tomb of Peer Haji Muhammed in the city of Srinagar. This probably represented the temple of Ramasvamin attributed to Ranaditya. Buhler identified the ancient city of Jayapura Dvaravati founded by Jayapida Vinayadita grandson of Muktapida Lalitaditya, towards the end of 8th century AD with the identification of extensive remains near the village of Andrkoth. Vogel made known the remains of temple sites near a village called Malangpura which is situated about 3 miles southwest of Avantipura. Sten Konow identified for the first time the temple in the Firozpur Nala below Gulmarg. Alongwith these discoveries also came to light two representations of Lakulisa or Luktapani on the doorways temples of Puranadhishthana and Payar. Though Cunningham recognised in the temple of Puranadhishthana the temple of Meruvardhan Svami-Vishnu, erected by a minister of Partha between 906-921 AD but presence of Lakulisa the form of Siva proved that this temple was a Siva fane.

The inner arrangement of Kashmir temples is essentially Indian yet the stepped roof of South and curved spire of temples in North are missing. The temples of Kashmir are either square or oblong. They are sub-divided into closed (Vimana) or open (Mandapa) type. The doorway of temples in Kashmir face in all directions but care is everywhere taken to place the water spout invariably to the left of image. The former practice is also at variance with the rule that Vishnu temples should always face towards the east. The temples of Kashmir without exception are what Ram Raz designates, as Suddha edifices i.e. composed of one kind of material from the base to the summit. The material employed in them is lime stone of somewhat bluish colour, fine grain and susceptible of receiving a high polish. Only one temple that of Buniar is built in granite stone of whitish colour. A porous kind of stone locally called as Kanait and similar to Kanjur of Taxilla was used for ceilings and also for foundations of cells. Brick has never been found in actual use as material for the ancient temple buildings in Kashmir. This fact is established on a Sarada inscription of Ramadeva which was discovered by Konow in the village of Arigoam.

The ancient temples of Kashmir so far known to us range in date about the middle of 8th to about the 12th century AD. The only examples of a later period being small shrines of no architectural value. Fergusson could not discover any temple site in Kashmir of a later date than 1000 AD but Stein however, established that the temples of Kother and Mamal belong to 11th and 12th centuries. With the help of many Gandharva monasteries and other Buddhist buildings unearthed at Taxilla one can reconstruct a fairly complete picture of architecture of Kashmir of that period. Unhappily no buildings of that age have survived in Kashmir above the ground. Even in the days of Lalitaditya, earlier buildings had become scarce. However, Lalitaditya discovered by excavation deep under the ground two ancient temples with closed doors containing images of Kesava which on the ground of inscriptions engraved on their bases were interpreted as having been put by Rama and Laxmana, the heroes of Ramayana, a story which seems to show that the script of the inscriptions was not known to the pandits of Kashmir of Lalitaditya's time. The two images in question are stated to have been later installed in new temples at Parihasapura. It was Lalitaditya who imported into Kashmir for the first time, a Buddha image from Magadha.

The dedicatory inscriptions which most of the temples of Kashmir are said to have contained are lost and so has been the gradual loss of grandeur. The peristyle which was an important feature in the temples of 8th and 9th centuries disappeared in the temples of Payar, Mamal and Kother. A similar process is observed in the form of trefoil arch which gradually merges into the round arch and of the pediment which dwindles into a mere decorative ornament. The porticoes in the side walls of the sanctum which in the earlier times were equal in dimensions to that on the entrance side denigrate in later examples into small sized niches such as we notice in some of later temples near Vangath. It is to be noticed that much of this decay in the style of architecture must have been also due to weakness and comparative resourcelessness of the later Hindu rulers in Kashmir, a few of whom were even driven to the necessity of robbing the valuable property of temples and other religious institutions.

Stupas of the Maurya time existed in Srinagar which contained each a measure of relics of Tathagata. A tooth of Buddha 11/2 inches in length is stated to have been enshrined in stupa attached to Jayendravihara in the same city. In another stupa which Kanishka erected in some place in Kashmir, he deposited sheets of red copper engraved with commentary on the three Pitakas. One of these, a vihara was erected at Arigoam in honour of Bodhistava Avalokitesvara. Parihaspura was the name of an ancient city founded by Lalitaditya in the first half of the 8th century AD. Already in the time of Kalhana, the city was in ruins and evidence shows that temples of Pattan were partly built with the materials carried away from this city.
 


Basement of Stupa at Parihasapura*


Temple at Pandrethan*


Bodhisattva Discovered at Pandrethan*


Siva Linga at Baramula*


Tile-Covered Courtyard and Platform, Harwan*


Terracotta Plaques Showing Miniature Stupas, Harvan*


Miniature Temple at Patan


Temple in Cave, Bumzu


Temple of Sankara-Gauresvara From West, Patan


Temple at Wangath*


Temple of Bhutesa, Wangath


Temple at Loduv*


Martand Temple, Matan*


Sankaragaurisvara Temple at Patan*


Avantisvami Temple : General View from the Front
Avantipora*


Padmasvami Temple at Pampor


Temple of Narastan*


Submerged Temple in the Manasbal Lake*


Temple at Buniar


Temple of Sugandhesa, Patan


Temple at Payar*

From the ancient site of Rajavihara in one of the cells, a small earthen vessel was discovered. It contained 44 silver coins of Durlabadeva, grandfather of Lalitaditya Muktapida, Jayapida Vinayaditya, grandson of Lalitaditya and Vigrahatunga. The temples at Parihasapura were called Parihasakesva, Muktakesva, Mahavarha and Goverdhanadhara. Of these the temple of Goverdhandhara was identified by Stein at a village now known as Gurdan in Kashmir. The ruins of sacred image and fragment remains of stone lintel and a capital column is all that was located of which Vigne established that capital column had been carried away to Puranadhisthana. According to later Persian chronicles of Narayan Koul and Mumammed Azim, the fragments of this column were still visible upto the early part of 18th century. It is now believed that this column was converted into the road metal of the Jhelum Valley road.

At the village of Vangath are situated two groups of ruins of temples with separate enclosures named Rajadainbal and Nagbal. Stein identified the principle temple of the Eastern group with that of Shiva Bhutesa and the western group with that of Shiva Jeyasthesa. These shrines were places of pilgrimage from very early times. Ashoka obtained a son from this deity and Jaluka son of Ashoka made a vow that he would ever worship Jeyasthesa. A spring north to this temple site was also identified by Stein as the tank into which the minister of Avantiverman threw the bleeding body of Dhanva who had confiscated the lands endowed upon the temple of Bhutesa.

The temple situated two miles above Rampur, close to Jhelum Valley road and known by the name of Buniar (Bhaniyar or Bhavaniyar) due to its dedication to Goddess Bhavani is infact, a temple attributable to the worship of Vishnu. It is by far the best preserved temple of Kashmir on account of two reasons, one it is built in hard granite rock and two because it was left untouched by the iconoclast Sikandar due to its remote location. A temple existed between Uri and Nowshera which Cunningham relying on Baron Hugel called as Brangutri a corrupted derivative of Varnakotri meaning Golden Durga. However, the local tradition was never familiar with this name. The temple was dedicated to Vishnu as fragments of life sized statue of this deity were found in the courtyard. But fortunately, the throne of the image has escaped destruction at the hands of a road contractor who though had taken it out and left in the entrance. It has now been put back in its original position against the back wall.

The modern town of Pattan marks the site of ancient city of Sankarapurapatana founded by King Sankaravarman (883-902 AD). Here the king erected a temple and named it as Sankaragaurisvara while his wife erected a temple which she named as Sughandesa after her own name. Sankaravarman's minister Ratanavardhana built a third temple and named it Ratanaverdhanesa. Cunningham identified the temples built by the kings and queen. The third temple has perished and its materials today survive around the walls of baolis and near by Dak Bungalow. Cole took five pictures of these monuments. These were however, damaged only in an earthquake which took place in 1880.

The tomb of Zainul-ab-din is situated in a large enclosure on the right bank of river Jhelum below the fourth bridge of the city of Srinagar. The grave in which the remains of Zainul-ab-din lie buried is an insignificant one hardly recognizable from other graves around it but the enclosure wall surrounding it undoubtedly belonged to an ancient Hindu temple. The ancient name of this temple will perhaps never be known but there is no doubt that it was a temple of Vaishnava deity which was erected about the 9th or 10th century. A part of this complex encloses also in Muhammadan style structures built by Sultan Habib of Kashmir in 1573 AD.

At the village Tapar twelve miles onwards from Baramullah towards Srinagar are the ruins of a temple called Narenderashvara which was built by Narendraprabha queen of Pratapaditya-II who reigned Kashmir from 634 to 684 AD. It was ruined by Sikandar and his son Zainul-ab-din (1420-1478 AD) used the stones in the construction of the bund from Naidkhai to Sopur. In the Wular lake there is a small island called Suna Lank. The island contained a Hindu temple whose traces were available till recently. It was demolished and the island was raised and shaped with same materials by king Zainul-ab-din. Thereafter, he called the island as Zaina Dab after his name and extoled it as a delightful spot for pleasure parties. But the ruins will always tell a Hindu tale.

The shrine of Tulamula sacred to Goddess Kshirbhawani or Ragina Devi is most popular place of pilgrimage among the Pandits of Kashmir. A curious phenomena observed here is that the water of spring changes colours occasionally like purple, green and so on. The Ragina Kavach - a psalm in praise of the Goddess included in Sanskrit work Rudrya mala tantra proves the pilgrimage is an ancient one. The jagir of the priests of Tulmula was once confiscated by King Jayapida who ruled Kashmir from 753 to 784 AD and one of the priests of Tulmula named Ittila cursed him for his impious deeds when a golden pole of the canopy suddenly tumbled down upon the king from which he sustained serious injury resulting in his death. The Mahatmya of the shrine says the Goddess was originally in Ceylon in the house of Demon king Ravana after whose death, she was brought by Hanumana here but its account is not mentioned in Ramayana and Mahabharatha. This place of pilgrimage was not visited by the Hindus during the Muslim rule and had been altogether forgotten by people until about 350 years ago when a Kashmiri pandit named Krishna Pandit Tapilu, whose descendents reportedly lived at Bohri Kadal in Srinagar until recent times about 50 years ago, by looking into a book called Brihad Katha discovered it and since then the people have again commenced visiting it. The offerings of the milk, rice and sugar that form the sediment in the spring was removed only twice within living memory. The first in 1867 by a man named Dewan Narsingh Dyal which followed a virulent epidemic of cholera. After that, nobody dared to do it again for the displeasure of goddess until the spring nearly disappeared with sedimentation when Pandit Vidhalal Dhar, the chief rais of Kashmir in 1902 decided to clear the spring. The digging unearthed an ancient temple in the centre built of large sculptured white stones with marvellous images of Hindu deities. Subsequently, the whole shrine was repaired in 1907 by Maharaja Pratap Singh with the erection of marble structure and fencing on the old site in the centre of spring.

The most conspicuous temple in the heart of Srinagar the Shankaracharya temple on the hill of Gopadari was built by King Gopaditya who reigned Kashmir from 308-328 BC. King Lalitaditya (701-737 AD) repaired it. Sikandar the iconoclast (1394-1469 AD) did not for some reasons destroy it. Zainul-ab-din repaired its roof which had tumbled during an earthquake. There were steps of scultpured stones leading from Shudashyar Ghat of the Jhelum river right upto the top of hill. With these stones it is said Pathar Masjid in city was built by Noor Jehan, queen of Jehangir. The Siva linga which is now worshipped in the temple is the modern one and was erected in 1907. The original image which existed was a linga encircled by a snake. A small renovation was done to this temple as late as in 1925 by the Maharaja of Mysore who during his visit to Kashmir beautified the temple by getting five electric search lights, erected around it and one more on the top of it. It was atop here that Shankaracharya during the time of Abhinav Gupta (993-1015 AD) composed the well known hymn called Soundarya Lahari in praise of Shakti.

Turning towards the east beyond the Jama Masjid is the temple of Pravareshvara built by King Pravarasena II. It is now utilized as Ziarat of Baha-ud-din Sahib. Below the fourth bridge on the right bank of the river Jhelum, was a five domed stone temple called MahaShri which was built by Pravarasena II. It is now converted into a graveyard of Muslims. There is only one large tomb inside the temple which is of Sikandar Butshikan's wife, and one's attention is arrested farther on by a large building on the right bank between the third and fourth bridges which is called Shah-i-Hamadan. There is on this spot, a spring called Kali. There was a Hindu temple over it which too was built by Pravarasena II (70-110 AD) and was called KaliShri. Today the locality is called as Kalashpora - a corruption of Kali-Shri-Pur. This temple was destroyed by Sultan Qutubdin (1373-1394 AD) and with its material he built the Khanaqah which though got burnt twice was rebuilt. Today, on the wall fronting the river Pandits have put a large red ochre mark and worship the Goddess Kali there. In front of the Kali Shri across the river, at the Pather Masjid ghat stood the shrines of Zayathesa Bhairava and Vishaksena Bhairava at the Dalal mohalla. Both these shrines have been turned into graveyards.

To the west of Jama Masjid near Kadi Kadal existed a temple of SadbhavaShri built by Pravarasena II. It is converted into a Ziarat of Pir Haji Muhammed and later Sultan Qutub-ud-din was buried here. Near the 6th bridge at some distance from the right bank of the river towards the north are the ruins of the temple of SkandaBhavana now called Khandabhavana which was built by Skand Gupta, minister of king Yudhisthra II (170-209 AD). It stands converted into a Ziarat of Pir Muhammed Basur. There are also here near the river bank ruins of temple which was founded by Pravarasena II and called LaukiShri. The ghat of this temple is still called Lokhari Yar - a corruption of Lauki-Shri-Yar. Passing farther below exist the ruins of stone temple called Tribhuvanasvamin which was built by Chandrapida who reigned Kashmir from 687 to 695 AD. A Muhammedan saint named Thag Baba Sahib was buried here and the place became to be known as Thag Baba Sahib.

Just opposite the above place, on the right bank near 7th bridge below Jhelum, Didda, Queen of Kshema Gupta built a Matha calling it Didda Matha. Today, it is called as Didda Mar while the Matha has been converted into the tomb of Malik Sahib. About two miles near Vicharnag are the ruins of the temple Vikrameshvara built by Vikramaditya (523-565 AD). It was destroyed by Sikander who used its stone for the construction of a mosque that exists now there. About half a mile farther east one reaches the ruins of the temple of Amritvbhavana built by Amritprabha, Queen of Meghavana (12-16 AD). It is now converted into a Ziarat and burial grounds of Vantabhavan locality.

About two miles from Vicharnag towards the south was the temple of Ranveshvara built by King Ranaditya (223 AD). The ruins of this temple have to be looked amidst the precincts of mosque of Madin Sahib. Farther here there is a large Chak burial ground which has remains of many unknown temple monuments and now converted into a Ziarat. Historian, Manakha referred to this temple as an object of his father's devotion.

The famous Jama Masjid was built originally by Sikander in 1407 AD from the materials of a large stone temple called temple of Tarapida constructed by King Tarapida (696-700 AD). Beside this, numerous ancient remains of stone temples are scattered around this mosque. The site of the mosque was considered sacred by Buddhists also in earlier times and even till recent times people from Ladakh visited it. They called it by its ancient name Tsitsung Tsublak Kang.

The first ancient edifice that one may encounter in the city of Srinagar is the temple of Narendrasvamin which was built by Lakhana Narendraditya who reigned in Kashmir from 209-222 AD. It has been turned into a Ziarat and even the locality is today known as Narparistan. From Srinagar at a distance of eight miles towards the Sindh valley falls a village called Amburher. Queen Suryamati (1028-1036 AD) founded two Mathas here. Ruins of old temple found at this place are built into the Ziarat of Farukhzad Sahib and are scattered here and there.

Remains of ancient temple are found in several places near Gupkar founded by King Gopaditya. Large carved slabs are built into Ziarats and also into basement of other Muhammadan buildings in the village itself. On the road close to the Ziarat lay a colossal linga 10 ft. in diameter which it is regretted was cut and taken away by somebody for building purposes in 1929. About 7 miles from Srinagar lies the village Zewan which in ancient times was a place of high rise monuments and had a pool filled with pure water sacred to Takshanaka - Lord of Snakes. The pool existed even until recent times as Takshanaka Naga when pilgrims on way to Harshevara paid a visit to it. All this is lost now with the imposition of muslim traditions followed on the spot.

About two miles to the east of Zewan, lies the famous village of Khonmouh where lie ruins of some old temples in the middle of tanks found here and there converted into a Ziarat. Some distance from Khrew lies Pampur the ancient Padmapura found by King Padma in the 9th century. He built a temple here called Vishnupadmasvamin. From the scanty remains of this ancient temple was built the Ziarat of Mir Muhammed Hamdani in which even today are visible fine columns and ornamented slabs taken from this temple. Other smaller Ziarats of the town also show similar materials.

A mile away from Khrew is the village of Shar known in ancient times by the name of Shanara as an agrahara founded by King Sachinara father of Ashoka. It can today be identified only as Ziarat of Khwaja Khzir amidst several small springs which is built with the remains of the temple that existed here. About two miles to the left of the road leading from Pampur to Avantipura there are two temples at Ladu, one surrounded by water and a smaller one close by a little higher-up the hill side. The small square cella and other materials of these old temples have now been annexed to a neighbouring Ziarat.

Twenty nine miles from Srinagar lies the town of Bijbehara the ancient Vijayesvara. The town contained the famous shrine of valley attributed to Shiva built by great king Ashoka who also later built two temples called Ashokesvara. The old temple alongwith linga of Siva Vijayesvara was destroyed by Sikander and the remains of destruction left over and available till recent times found their way in the construction of Bade Masjid. The stone receptical for temple offerings makes a part of Ratna Haji mosque and its pillar is found inside it.

In the Lidar valley at Mamal anciently called Mamalaka nestles the ruins of a small Siva temple of sculptured stones. The temple escaped destruction at the hands of Sikandar. A remarkable account describes its best. "Sikander went up the Lidar valley with the intention of proceeding to the cave of Amarnath and breaking the ice linga there and also the temple at Mamal enroute. On reaching Ganeshbal he broke the stone image of Ganesha standing in the middle of Lambodari river. It is said that when the knee of image was struck by Sikander with a hammer, a flood of blood flowed down. On witnessing this freightful spectacle, the iconoclast got terrified and thenceforth desisted, out of fear, from further destruction of Hindu temples and images. He then and there abandoned the idea of going farther to Amarnath and returned crest fallen, regretting his past sacrilegious acts and deeds. On his way back, on reaching Bijbehara, Sikander is said to have found a slab with an old inscription in Sanskrit in the ruins of Vijayesvara temple he had destroyed previously. In that it was stated, "Bismillahi mantrena nashantea Vijayeswara" meaning that with the pronouncement of Bismillah, (a phrase used by Muslims at the beginning of all actions), the Vijayesvara temple shall get destroyed.

Seeing that what he had done had already been predicted, Sikander was shaken for having been got identified and instrumental in the fulfillment of this inevitable Hindu prediction and what followed was that a few temples left were saved from destruction by him.

A small village hamlet about a mile north of the sacred springs of Mattan known as Bumzu contain three ancient temples which date to the 10th century AD. The most important among them is the temple now converted into Muhammadan tomb and known as Ziarat of Bamadin Sahib. The temple was erected by Bhima Sahi, maternal grandfather of Queen Didda in 950-958 AD. According to Rishinama this saint before his conversion to Islam bore the name of Bhuma Sadu. Another temple closeby has been turned into the tomb of Rukun-ud-din who died sometime after Baba Bamadin. These temples of great antiquity are besides the cave temples of Bumzu the vestiges of which still exist.

The temples described above were erected during the Hindu period of Kashmir history. More than these the rest must have been exceedingly numerous as is evidenced by the immense number of their ruins present in the foundations and walls of mosques and houses, besides ghats and embankments. A capital turned upside down, a broken shaft or an injured pedestal may frequently be observed embedded in a wall of ordinary office building made in stone. But such marvellous works of art, "denote the former presence in Kashmir of a people worthy of study. And the people who built the ancient temples of Kashmir must have been religious for the remains are all of the temples or sacred emblems and not of palaces, commercial offices or hotels and they must have at least held one large idea, else they would not have built on so enduring a scale. They must have been men of strong and simple tastes averse to paltry and the florid".

In 1339 AD, Kashmir passed into the hands of Muhammadan rulers when queen Kota the widow of the last Hindu ruler was murdered by Shah Mir. No Hindu religious buildings of any consequences were erected in Kashmir in Muslim period. The Hindu remains of this period are insignificant shrines constructed by private individuals of small means which one can frequently meet within the valley of Kashmir.

List of References

1. Annual Report-1907. Archaeological Survey of India-Monuments of Kashmir

2. Annual Report-1914. Archaeological Survey of India-Monuments of Kashmir

3. Report on Preservation of Temple Monuments of Kashmir J.Ph Vogel-1904

4. Report on Vangath Temple Ruins, submitted by Aurel Stein to Raja Amar Singh-1892

5. The Report-In Search of Sanskrit manuscripts in Kashmir, Rajputana and Central India - Georg Buhler-1877

6. Valley of Kashmir - Walter Lawrence-1895

7. Kashmir - Francis Young Husband

8. Series of articles in Sunday Times, Lahore - Anand Koul - 1927-1932

9. Temple Ruins of Kashmir. Epigraphica Indica. 1920-1923. J.Ph Vogel & Sten Konow

10. Rajatarangini - Aurel Stein - 1900

11. Series of articles in India Antiquary - Anand Koul

12. Essay on the Arian order of architecture - Alexander Cunningham

13. Illustrations of Ancient buildings of Kashmir - A.B.Cole

14. History of Indian and Eastern Architecture - James Fergusson

15. Annual Report of ASI - Part II - 1906-07

16. Hindu Architecture - Ram Raz

17. Fine Art in India and Ceylon

18. Note on Archaeological work in Kashmir

19. Ancient Geography of Kashmir - Aurel Stein - 1892

20. Journal of A.S.B. - Part I. 1866

21. Fine Art - V.A. Smith

22. Journal of A.S.B. - 1848

23. Elements of Hindu Iconography. T.A. Gopinatha Rao - Vol I, Part II

[The figures marked asterisk (*) have been reproduced from "Ancient Monuments of Kashmir", by Ram Chandra Kak, Sagar Publications, reprinted in 1971; originally published in 1933, by The India Society, London. -Editor-in-Chief]



The author is Secretary, Nityanand Shastri Research Institute, New Delhi.

Mailing Address : H-128, Sarojini Nagar, New Delhi-110023
 
  

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